Jahangir Moini, Pirouz Piran, in Functional and Clinical Neuroanatomy, 2020
Specialized language areas
Language processing is very complicated and occurs in both cerebral hemispheres. However, it varies between individuals. Related to primarily the left hemisphere are Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area. The first, Wernicke’s area, is close to the auditory cortex, and located in the superior temporal gyrus. It is associated with language comprehension, receiving information from the sensory association areas. It is important in a person’s personality since it integrates sensory information and coordinates the access to auditory and visual memories.
Broca’s area is also known as the motor speech area. It is near the motor cortex and utilized in speech production, located in the inferior frontal gyrus. This area regulates breathing patterns while speaking and vocalizations required for normal speech. It coordinates the activities of the muscles of respiration, the larynx, the pharynx, as well as those of the cheeks, lips, jaws, and tongue. If a person has damage to Broca’s area, sounds can be made, but words cannot be formed. The receptive speech area is another name for the auditory association area. It utilizes feedback to adjust motor commands from the motor speech area. Many different speech-related problems can occur because of damage to a specific sensory area. Some patients have problems with speaking but understand the usage of correct words, while others can speak consistently yet use many incorrect words. Please note that these two (Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas) are the main language centers. However, in order to be able to read, speak, and write, other areas of the brain need to function in coordination.